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The benefits of studying leadership

01/04/2012

There are many theories talks about the leadership and its style but still it is very much important that the different kinds of leadership required in the business world. Every Leader has his own style and variables of behavior from others, there are more scope for the theory for the researcher to come up different types of leader ship style (Bennis, 2008). The benefits of studying the leadership as follows:

  • New style of leadership can enhance the leader’s performance in the organization
  • Leader can develop their traits and skill in effective direction and handling of their subordinates
  • In the global business, the leader required wide scope of management where the upcoming study of leadership can support them. (Robert, 2009)
  • In the modern business world, employees are given more importance and concentration as equal as the organization gives importance to their customers so it required very dynamic and situation demanding leaders.
  • New leadership style can be guide better decision making process, effective implementation of decision and provide best monitoring system.
  • Complex process of global business required changing style of leader
  • Business across different culture required dynamic leader with different style adaptability according to the culture and situation. (Marian, 2010)

References:

  • Robert N. Lussier, Christopher F. Achua (2009) Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development, Cengage Learning
  • Bill George, Warren Bennis (2008) Authentic Leadership : Rediscovering the Secrets to Creating Lasting Value, John Wiley & Sons
  • Ellen Van Velsor, Cynthia D. McCauley, Marian N. Ruderman (2010) The Center for Creative Leadership Handbook of Leadership Development, John Wiley & Sons.
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Ethical relationships between leaders and their teams

01/04/2012

Ethics will different from country to country, organization to organization, leaders to leaders and individual to individual but still some of the general ethics which is accepted by most of the peoples and organization in the world. Ethical relationship is the vital traits of the leader required to be followed in their teams (Steward, 2008). Team need to believe the leader for which the leader needs to create the trust using ethical aspect of relationship. Following are the points to ensure the ethical relationship between the leaders and teams

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1863984

  • Leader should not take advantages of his team guide the only for the organization benefits but leader should guide his team take achieve the goals of organization at same time the every individual in his team needs to be get benefited. (Aristigueta, 2008)
  • Leader should take decision keeping in his mind about his team members and their benefits
  • Leader should take the responsibilities out of his wrong doing.
  • Leader should make every employee to take participate in decision making
  • Leader should set and give acceptable manner of goals and responsibilities to his team
  • Leader should be dynamic over the critical situation so that teams can work flexible with his leader.

References:

 

  • Denhardt, R. B., Denhardt, J. V., & Aristigueta, M. P. (2008). Managing Human Behavior in Public and Nonprofit Organizations. Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Stewart D. Friedman (2008) Total leadership: be a better leader, have a richer life, Harvard Business Press,
  • Source: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1863984
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Analysis of leaders in global business

01/04/2012

In the growing competitive global business it’s required very dynamic leader who can be very much dynamic and lead the organization or team to the success path. Now a day leaders in the organization are called global leader since the business as cross the country’s boundary and generate huge revenue and customers (Feldman, 2008). Global business world required the leader should be competitive enough at the global level which required lot of leadership qualities and dynamic.

Dynamic leader

Leader needs to be dynamic in their leadership style; leader needs to adopt different leadership style as per the situation demands. Leader should be autocratic in the situation of critical and emergence, leader should act as the participative in the situation of fixing the objectives and performance goals of the employees, leader should act as the democratic in the time of execution of the job so that he can give enough attention to every employee’s practice difficulties and leader should act as lasses faire model at the time of employee executing their job so that employee will freedom to execute the job as the employee likes. (David, 2008)

Work with different cultural obstacles

Leader should have traits of understanding different culture and work with employee from different countries. Leader needs to alter their habitual behaviour according to the employee from different part of the world. Communication is the biggest strength of the leader where the leader needs to be communicating at the highest order where the every employee in the organization accept and obey. (Bill, 2009)

Competency base development

Leader needs to develop them based upon the competency. Competency has three components which the leader has to inculcate in their behaviors:

  • Leader delivers required best in the organization and competitive world so that the leader achieves the set objectives.
    • Setting direction: leader needs to set the direction according to their employees and organization should result in the path of success. Direction should be achievable and real one.
    • Decision-making: leader should take the decision making after deep analyses of fact and information which is available. Decision should be peace and confidence. (David, 2011)
    • Managing ambiguity: leader should proactive and ready for the changes required in the organization. At the time the leader should stay effective and focused at the goals or objectives
    • Building ability: leader should have the team building ability, interpersonal skill to make the team effective, communication at higher order to their employee and able to influence the employee to perform the maximum. (Robert, 2009)
    • Drive in leader: leader should drive himself and organization in making commercial acumen with the available opportunities.  Leader should not lead and motivates his subordinates but same time he has to lead and motivate himself. Leader should prepare himself with the changes and innovation in the business. (Maxwell, 2008)

Learning from 360 feedbacks

Leader should be learner rather being a good teacher since the leader needs to adapt to the latest changes in the organization. Learning of the leader takes place from his rating boss, rating peer group, rating from subordinates and rating from the outsider who is linked with the business. (Van, 2011)

5 practical of exemplary leader

The five practical of exemplary leader to the challenges are as follows:

  • Model the way: leader set the model of himself by using his leadership qualities and clearly understanding the personal values of his.
  • Inspire a share vision: leader should be visionary. Leader should analyses the future possibilities and creates an effective vision to the organization. Leader should be effective in making the vision imparting among the followers or subordinate so that they follow achieve the vision. (Li, 2010)
  • Challenge the process: leader should search for the opportunities availability in the scope of organization. Leader based upon his experience take risk for the benefit of the organization and team member.
  • Enable other act: leader should enable other act by creating effective cooperative goals. Leader has built the trust from his subordinates. Leader job is to strength their team and organization by sharing power and discretion as required. (Goldsmith, 2010)
  • Encourage heart: leader should encourage his subordinate at the difficult situation and set himself encourages person at time.

References:

  • Brad Jackson, David Collinson, Keith Grint (2011) Leadership, SAGE Publications
  • Bill Hybels (2009) Courageous Leadership, Zondervan
  • David Ulrich, W. Norman Smallwood, Kate Sweetman (2008) The leadership code: five rules to lead by, The RBL Group
  • Robert N. Lussier, Christopher F. Achua (2009) Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development, Cengage Learning
  • John C. Maxwell (2008) Leadership Gold: Lessons I’ve Learned from a Lifetime of Leading, Thomas Nelson Inc
  • Marshall Goldsmith, John Baldoni, Sarah McArthur (2010) The AMA handbook of leadership AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn,
  • Bill Hybels (2009) Courageous Leadership, Zondervan
  • Charlene Li (2010) Open Leadership: How Social Technology Can Transform the Way You Lead, John Wiley & Sons.
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Change and resistance to change

01/04/2012

Changes in organization

Business world is bound to accept the changing environment. The changes are only thing which cannot be change in the business world. Organization needs to change themselves, groups and individual. A main reason for the organization to get changed their behaviour is to result in dynamic environmental organization (Shaw, 2008).

Organization cultural change

Organization needs to be dynamic so the organization needs to change their behaviour and work culture. Behavioral changes should make the organization to achieve the maximum productivity (Magdelyn, 2009).

Source: http://www.pirbic.com/managingchange.htm

  • Leading and power: the change needs to be bringing in the leading and power of the leader in the organization.
  • Change agent: change in the organization can be successfully achieved by the strong change agent who can take responsibility to change the organization behaviour and work culture. Change required strong leadership quality to change the required behaviour in the organization (Jane, 2009).
  • Differentiate leadership skill: the leader or change agent needs to adopt the differentiate leadership skill to make effective changes among the group and individual in the organization (Nannerl,2010).
  • Develop new capabilities by the organization
    • Organization needs to create new strategy to implement the organization change program
    • This new strategies should raise the organization to create the new organization work culture
    • The changes should result in making the organization as an ideal organization.

Individual change

Individual change will bring the changes in the entire organization. The changes can be achieve by a strategy. This strategy should change every individual in the organization so that it will result in overall changes. The individual in the organization are the employees (Ellen, 2010). Individual should realize the benefits of the changes, up gradation in the job, better performance, job security, adaptable to their perception etc.

Resistance to change

Resistance to changes is the common problem every organization faces with their employees since the employees to adopted to a specific course of action but suddenly organization wants to change the behavior of the individual in the organization is not so easy (Punnett, 2009). The employee normally will not ready to change so resist changing. Resistance to change have two dimensions they are group in the organization resistance to change and individual resistance to change.

Organization resistance to change

Source: http://www.ktsprocess.com/highperformance/2009/07/07/the-resistance-to-change-pyramid/

  • Organization culture: organization needs to be change where there is needs to bring changes in the cultural environment. Organization culture is composed by the employees. Changes in the employee are very much required to change the culture of the organizational (Jackson, 2011). Company is successful in changing the environment and infrastructure of the organization which will change the entire organization. Organization culture will not change completely as long every member in the organization will change themselves and their behaviour.
  • Maintaining stability: stability of the management behaviour with their employees will not lead to change the organization culture entirely. There is a change in the leadership style in the management will not give rise to the management to make change in their behaviour. Till the management will not show interest in changing so it will create resistance to change (James, 2010).
  • Investment in resource: organization change will not so easy as the organization needs to make investment in the resource. Investment burden in making the changes will resist the organization to change.
  • Past contract or agreement: organization change is not so easy if the organization have entered into the past contract or agreement. This agreement may not let the organization culture to change easily and this agreement may take code of conduct or defined behaviour.
  • Threat to power or influence: organization resistance to change due to threat to power or influence. Some of the team leader in the organization will change themselves to create the changed organization culture due to threat of power or influences (Stewart, 2008).

Individual resistance to change

Change in the organization will being with the change in the individual behaviour who works in the organization. Process of every individual in the organization changes the behaviour will lead to change in the entire behaviour of the organization (Marshall, 2010). Some of the reason for individual resistance to change as follows:

  • Habit: individual behaviour change will need to change their regular habit which is very much difficult to the individual to adopt and change.
  • Security in the past: the sense of security in the job of the individual will resist changing their behaviour. Security is the greater concern for the individual and this will not make their behaviour to change what the organization wants from them to change.
  • Selective perception: the selective perception will let the individual to believe in the changes and individual result in resistance to change
  • Inconvenience or lost of freedom: individual may feel that the change in the behaviour will lost the freedom in the organization and this result in resistance to change.
  • Fear of the unknown: individual will not known the outcome of the changed behavior, this will not let the individual to change their behaviour so they resistance to change.
  • Economic implication: the economic implication will let the individual to change their behaviour in the organization.

Action to secure change

  • It is very important part of the organization to create sense of urgency required, security and betterment of them.

Organization needs to create the uplifting, clear, empower, remove all kinds of obstacle, nurturing new culture, encouraging short term appreciations and sensible.

References:

  • Magdelyn McGrath, 2009.  Managing human resources,  Managing Human Resources Through Stategic Partnerships, International Edition.
  • Cynthia D. Fisher, Lyle F. Schoenfeldt, James B. Shaw, 2008 . Human Resource Management, Wiley India Pvt.,
  • Betty Jane Punnett , (2009). International Perspectives on Organizational Behavior and Human Resource . M.E. Sharpe publication pvt ltd., Armonk Newyork , London England.
  • James M. Kouzes, Barry Z. Posner (2010) The Leadership Challenge, John Wiley & Sons
  • Stewart D. Friedman (2008) Total leadership: be a better leader, have a richer life, Harvard Business Press,
  • Nannerl O. Keohane (2010) Thinking about leadership, Princeton University Press
  • Marshall Goldsmith, John Baldoni, Sarah McArthur (2010) The AMA handbook of leadership AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn,
  • Ellen Van Velsor, Cynthia D. McCauley, Marian N. Ruderman (2010) The Center for Creative Leadership Handbook of Leadership Development, John Wiley & Sons
  • Brad Jackson, David Collinson, Keith Grint (2011) Leadership, SAGE Publications
  • http://www.pirbic.com/managingchange.htm
  • http://www.ktsprocess.com/highperformance/2009/07/07/the-resistance-to-change-pyramid/
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Theories and Models of Leadership and Management

01/04/2012

Every organization or industry has found themselves with difference in their functioning and style of leadership so they have required different leadership styles to make the organizations more effective (Kellerman, 2010). A particular organization may be successful using a specific style of leader but another organization may be successful using different type of leadership style, for example information technology based companies may be successful using particular types of leadership because their organization structure follows the matrix style but automobile based organization may be successful because they have used scientific management style of leadership, although scientific management style of leadership may not be opt model for information technology based industries (Andrew, 2008). So every organization follows different style of leadership based upon their operation.

Theory of scientific management

Scientific management has brough a big change in the leadership and management of the organization in the 18 century. F.W.Taylor have propounded theory called piece rate system so as to replace the thump rule of management with scientific method of management. in this era, the leader will follow some set of principle so as to make the effective management. henry fayol have define the function of management with 14 principles and leader has to follow these 14 principles (Hayes, 2009). Still these theories hold good at the present scenerio where most of the organization follows these standards i.e organization should have different departments, discipline in the act, specialist of doing job, incentive is framed to motivate the employee, unity of command, unity of direction etc.

Human resource management theories

Scientific management has defined quailty of management but it has forget one aspect that the human beings cannot work like machinery. Human being or workers required a respect and concern about them by the managemnt (McGrath, 2009). Elton mayo have taken many years as much as 22 years and found out a managemnet called human resource management. human resource management have given reconginition to the employees in the management. The leaders in management has recognised that the human is an important factor to achieve the best level of performances. Human resource management has replaced the scientific management with the human relationship approaches.

Motivation theory

Motivation theory propounded by great thinkers like abraham maslow, Herzberg, McClelland etc and they have added colours to the human resource theory. motivation theories hava mainly emphasis on the motivation factors on the employees to extract the best out of them (Webb, 2009). Motivation is not new concept found in era but the FW.Taylor have defined indirectly by introducing piece rate system. The piece rate system wil pay more to the employee who produce more and will pay less to those employee who produce less. Maslow have define the level of motivation with five needs (North, 2010)

Maslow believes that the organization has to motivates their employees based upon their different level of needs. Right from the basic needs to the self actualization needs, Maslow defines the level of needs and based upon the employee needs, the organization required to motivate (Green, 2009).

Source: http://dinamehta.com/blog/2010/01/12/twitter-maslows-hierarchy-of-needs-nay-hierarchy-of-tweets/

Herzberg is the great critic of Maslow theory on the motivation. Herzberg expressed that the needs is not only criteria to be considered in the process of motivation but there are another things to be considered. Herzberg emphases on the work content, organization policies on the job, reward, rules and regulation etc. Herzberg have given complete shape to the theory of maslow need hierarchy. (Denhardt, 2008).

Source: http://mathehu.wordpress.com/2010/04/15/a-selection-of-psychological-theories-on-motivation-and-behaviour-change/

Process theories

Process theories emphases on the process of motivation when compare to motivation theory. Motivation theory focused on the motivational factor and individual motivation (Captain, 2009). The expectance theory had emphases upon the expectation of the employee and actual benefits received by the employee, if the organization fail to meet the expectance with the actual than the employees will not be satisfied. The organization successfully able to meet the expectance with the actual than the employee will more satisfy. Satisfied employee will build the morale and gives his best performance.

Source: http://www.12manage.com/methods_vroom_expectancy_theory.html

Group activity

Above theories mostly deals with the individual motivation and leadership theories. The process theory has forgotten the group behaviour (Bettym, 2009). A good team work depend upon the good group and its member if one of the member is fail to understand other than entire group effects will go waste. The golden rules for the best group activity so as to make the good team work are as follows:

  • Specific: group should specific to their work and goals to be achieved in the upcoming days. Group should specific in each function of the team member and group as whole.
  • Behaviour: group activities directed towards member’s behavior and each member in the team should their behaviour as per expected.
  • Impact: group member should be honest to each so as to create a greater impact on their job performance and group performance as whole.
  • Future: group should be futuristic. Group directs the member behaviour and guides their member in altering future behaviour. Altering the future behaviour of the team member should be taken care by their team leader. (Butkus, 2009).

References:

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