Every organization or industry has found themselves with difference in their functioning and style of leadership so they have required different leadership styles to make the organizations more effective (Kellerman, 2010). A particular organization may be successful using a specific style of leader but another organization may be successful using different type of leadership style, for example information technology based companies may be successful using particular types of leadership because their organization structure follows the matrix style but automobile based organization may be successful because they have used scientific management style of leadership, although scientific management style of leadership may not be opt model for information technology based industries (Andrew, 2008). So every organization follows different style of leadership based upon their operation.
Theory of scientific management
Scientific management has brough a big change in the leadership and management of the organization in the 18 century. F.W.Taylor have propounded theory called piece rate system so as to replace the thump rule of management with scientific method of management. in this era, the leader will follow some set of principle so as to make the effective management. henry fayol have define the function of management with 14 principles and leader has to follow these 14 principles (Hayes, 2009). Still these theories hold good at the present scenerio where most of the organization follows these standards i.e organization should have different departments, discipline in the act, specialist of doing job, incentive is framed to motivate the employee, unity of command, unity of direction etc.
Human resource management theories
Scientific management has defined quailty of management but it has forget one aspect that the human beings cannot work like machinery. Human being or workers required a respect and concern about them by the managemnt (McGrath, 2009). Elton mayo have taken many years as much as 22 years and found out a managemnet called human resource management. human resource management have given reconginition to the employees in the management. The leaders in management has recognised that the human is an important factor to achieve the best level of performances. Human resource management has replaced the scientific management with the human relationship approaches.
Motivation theory propounded by great thinkers like abraham maslow, Herzberg, McClelland etc and they have added colours to the human resource theory. motivation theories hava mainly emphasis on the motivation factors on the employees to extract the best out of them (Webb, 2009). Motivation is not new concept found in era but the FW.Taylor have defined indirectly by introducing piece rate system. The piece rate system wil pay more to the employee who produce more and will pay less to those employee who produce less. Maslow have define the level of motivation with five needs (North, 2010)
Maslow believes that the organization has to motivates their employees based upon their different level of needs. Right from the basic needs to the self actualization needs, Maslow defines the level of needs and based upon the employee needs, the organization required to motivate (Green, 2009).
Herzberg is the great critic of Maslow theory on the motivation. Herzberg expressed that the needs is not only criteria to be considered in the process of motivation but there are another things to be considered. Herzberg emphases on the work content, organization policies on the job, reward, rules and regulation etc. Herzberg have given complete shape to the theory of maslow need hierarchy. (Denhardt, 2008).
Process theories emphases on the process of motivation when compare to motivation theory. Motivation theory focused on the motivational factor and individual motivation (Captain, 2009). The expectance theory had emphases upon the expectation of the employee and actual benefits received by the employee, if the organization fail to meet the expectance with the actual than the employees will not be satisfied. The organization successfully able to meet the expectance with the actual than the employee will more satisfy. Satisfied employee will build the morale and gives his best performance.
Above theories mostly deals with the individual motivation and leadership theories. The process theory has forgotten the group behaviour (Bettym, 2009). A good team work depend upon the good group and its member if one of the member is fail to understand other than entire group effects will go waste. The golden rules for the best group activity so as to make the good team work are as follows:
- Specific: group should specific to their work and goals to be achieved in the upcoming days. Group should specific in each function of the team member and group as whole.
- Behaviour: group activities directed towards member’s behavior and each member in the team should their behaviour as per expected.
- Impact: group member should be honest to each so as to create a greater impact on their job performance and group performance as whole.
- Future: group should be futuristic. Group directs the member behaviour and guides their member in altering future behaviour. Altering the future behaviour of the team member should be taken care by their team leader. (Butkus, 2009).
- Denhardt, R. B., Denhardt, J. V., & Aristigueta, M. P. (2008). Managing Human Behavior in Public and Nonprofit Organizations. Sage Publications, Inc.
- Magdelyn McGrath, 2009. Managing human resources, Managing Human Resources Through Stategic Partnerships, International Edition.
- Hayes, D. K., & Ninemeier, J. D. (2009). Human Resources Management in the Hospitality Industry. Toranto: John wiley and sons.
- Butkus, R.T. & Green, T.B. 2009. Motivation, Beliefs and organizational Transformation Organizational Quorum Books.
- Kellerman (2010) Leadership, Tata McGraw-Hill Education,
- James Abrahamson, Andrew O’Meara (2008) Leadership: Combat Leaders and Lessons, Lulu.com
- B.webb (2009) articles “9 rules for effective work team” carolina
- Daniel North (2010) research paper “how does motivation influences employee performance”